After revisiting the first assignment and comparing it to the data visualizations, the text analysis only gave an overview of the riot while the data visualizations were more in-depth and a better understanding of the riot. The label that this riot was given and has not changed throughout the semester was an uprising. Uprising is a spontaneous upsurge of protest or violent expression of discontent, something with political content. There were previous events before the protest that involved the government creating tension in the black community and police brutality. With tension already there, the beating of the cab driver was the breaking point of the community. There were previous events before the protest that involved the government creating tension in the black community and police brutality. The text analysis helped to provide more reasoning behind the label given in the first analysis, which was reports and articles from mostly police present in the riot and government officials. The timeline and map also provided support by giving times and locations of events that included some events of police being assaulted by rioters or police using brutal force on civilians. The first analysis for the most part does fit the data visualizations. They include the same geographical spread, levels of government, and property damage listed.
Analysis of Wikipedia Entry
When comparing events mentioned in the Wikipedia entry to the map and timelines made, the entry does not have as many events as the reports and articles analyzed before. The events in the entry are given a brief summary of where and when they happened. Rather than a one to two-sentence description, it gave very specific details on events that were not in other readings on the riot. There were repeated events from the previous readings, such as the looting mostly centered on Springfield Avenue and the killing of Detective Fred. Toto, and the killing of William Furr. It also had new events that were not included in the other entries. These were the killings of Isaac Harrison and Robert Lee Martin, the killing of Joe Bass Jr., and a woman smashing windows of the 4th precinct. The Wikipedia entry gives good background information on previous events leading up to the riot. the aftermath, and gave a brief summary of the arrest of a cab driver, which was the trigger of the riot. This was a big difference from the other readings, as they only mention his arrest and its reason for the protest. The entry calls the riot a rebellion, which is a political complaint against underlying
political, social, and economic structures of oppression. There was a debate by the authors on whether to call it a rebellion since it was combined with other riots, but no change has been made yet from the rebellion. Even though there were reasons for economic oppression prior to the riot, I do not agree that this should be the label. Economic oppression does play a big factor in the reason for protesting, but I believe the main factor will always be the arrest. The background information mentions incidents of police brutality against African Americans, which is consistent with the other reports and articles on the riot. The interpretation this entry gives of the riot is more organized, with political intent because of the poverty, and meetings in between the arrest and the time when the rioting began included in the background information. It also gives a specific time that members set for civilians to go to the 4th precinct to protest. I could see why the Wikipedia entry would be labeled as a rebellion, but I would still label it as an uprising, as this riot was a violent expression of discontent, which the entry supports with the included events of looting in the business areas and property damage done to the 4th precinct. The entry gives more of a general overview so it is hard to give a label on just this one entry.
Mapping Newark Riot
From what can be seen on the map, the events do not cluster together but are spread out throughout the city. The points on the map were close or near each other, rather than clustered. Events were occurring more on a particular street, which was Springfield Avenue. The events on Springfield Avenue were all in the category involving looting, as Springfield Avenue was a block full of businesses. Categories were also not clustered together, but still relatively close. Events in the type of event labeled killed occurred on streets nearby, such as Livingston Street, Jones Street, and 15th Avenue. As mentioned before, most of the looting took place on Springfield Avenue. The places the events occur change beginning of July 14th through the 15th. Between these dates, the rioting tends to stay in the middle of the city and events are happening closer together and then spread out as the riot progresses. In the 17th and 18th, the points are one or two events, showing the rioting dying down those days. The events involving the category labeled assault by police and some assault by groups were not involved in the map, as most of those events had little to no information on their location, locations that do not exist anymore, or the event happened in the same location and points were directly on top of each other. I believe the map would have shown clusters if events had more precise locations or if points were not placed on top of each other. Some of the events involving police killings were categorized as killed and did make it on the map. I believe that the map does not give a good representation of the label uprising. An uprising is a spontaneous upsurge of protest or violent expression of discontent, something with political content, but short of a full-fledged revolutionary act. With no events that included the reports of police killings and their involvement with looting stores and businesses, it shapes away the key features and the trigger of the riot. Knowing that there were events before the riot of police brutality and not being able to see them, the map gives a poor interpretation of those events. If I were to look at this map without any knowledge known before the riot, I would believe that most of the looting and assault was done by mostly rioters than the police. With no other information, I would label it as a disorder. A disorder is a neutral language because the upheavals evoked such varying responses within the communities where they occurred. None of the events happen in a pattern and all events happen at different times and it is complete chaos.
Newark Riot Timeline
From what can be interpreted from the timeline, the events seem to cluster around the evening times and/or night times. The looting and most killings seem to have happened mostly late at night. The clusters were not large as only a few events seem to cluster at a time and the events seemed to be spread out more. The reason for this is that maybe events not having a precise time and could only be given a time frame. There were not many clusters of the same category. The same category that clustered was assault by group, which appeared to cluster twice on the timeline on July 14th and July 15th. This could be because of the high number of events in this category. Other than this, the clusters were a mix of all categories happening in the same time frame. The events were not all the same and were placed into ten different categories. There were gaps between events but were not huge gaps. As mentioned before, most of the events seemed to happen late at night, so most day events were low in numbers. The gaps are between the early afternoon to evening hours. The gaps were also between July 16th through July 18th as the riot was dying down these days. I believe only 30+ events were added to the timeline, but all the categories were there. The categories that involve assault or killed were cut in numbers mainly because times were missing and it may have affected the interpretation of the timeline. The label I chose for this riot from the first assignment was an uprising. Uprising is a spontaneous upsurge of protest or violent expression of discontent, something with political content. The timeline supports this by spreading out key events and giving a better visual aid of the categories assault by police and assault by group which are key features. They are key features because the events are most are police being attacked or the ones attacking rioters or innocent civilians. It all began with police brutality and this goes into the violent expression of discontent against what is considered the trigger of riot.
Newark Riot Event Spreadsheet
The data collected shows assault by police and looting have the most numbers from the events. The data fit with the label uprising. Uprising is a spontaneous upsurge of protest or violent expression of
discontent, something with political content, but short of a full-fledged revolutionary act. This does not change my mind about the police being the key feature of the label. There was tension for other reasons in the black community before the riot started, but police brutality became the main reason for the violence. The looting was the rioters and the assault on police was the result of the anger at the police brutality of the cab driver. There was a large number of assaults by police on rioters and civilians which contributed to more violence.
Text Analysis of Newspapers on the Newark Riot
|Corpus(All Documents)||Report for Action Document||New York Times||New York Amsterdam News|
|5 Most Frequent Words in the Corpus||Police (798) |
|5 Most Distintive Words in each Document||Kelly (157)|
The racial term that only seemed to be used in all three documents was the term negro, which appeared 258 times and only a few times referring to the opposing race as black and or white. It is not a surprise as it was a standard term for both races during this time. I do not believe there were any OCR errors as the only words taken out of the corpus were Newark, Jersey, 1967, and city. The most frequent terms turned out to be as expected. To no surprise, police would be the number word to come up as number one of the most frequent terms. The document that police appeared on the most was in the New York Times. Police was the number one word because the main source of reporting would come from the police who were present during the riots. The links in Voyant showed the words occurring with police were state, local, and guard. This means that state and local police were involved in the riots and the national guard had been mentioned also. Police did have the same meaning throughout the corpus. One distinctive word from the corpus was Spina, which only appeared in Report for Action document. It was number 29 on the terms list. The term list also showed the word was in correlation to mayor, police, and testimony. Spina was the last name of police director Dominick A. Spina. He was present at the riot and was interviewed about his experience of the riot and was taking orders from Colonel Kelly, which was the distinctive word of the Report for Action and another person interviewed.
Comparing the white and black newspapers, the white newspaper is mostly the law enforcement’s perspective. the terms list on Voyant revealed that the words said, crowd and negro were the most distinctive words in the New York Times. The word said collocates with the words mayor, policemen, and director, meaning that their reporting on the riot came from police and government interviews. The word crowd was used with the racial word negro, with phrases such as “crowd of Negroes” or “bands of Negroes broke from the crowd.” The black newspaper seemed to have been information reported from the black community and their personal experiences. The newspaper’s most distinctive words were the names of people. There was a report on a woman seeing people loot stores and the name Theodore, who described the riot as havoc across the streets and saw the debris and empty stores. Comparing both newspapers to the report, the white newspaper and the report had similar perspectives. Both base their information on the government and the police. The report also has names for its most distinctive words, but the words programs and training. Training collocates with programs as the report goes into the training of the Newark Police Department and programs to aid the black community. Education also collocates with the word program as poor education led to unemployment for the black community, which happened years before the riot and contributed to the trigger.
After the analysis of the newspapers, the analysis did not change my mind about this riot being labeled an uprising. Uprising is a spontaneous upsurge of protest or violent expression of discontent, something with political content. What supports this is that the report of most of the documents mentioned terms related to government and being the main reason for the tension in the black community. The white newspaper mostly reports on the riot being disorganized and the black community taking out their anger on the police and government.
Newark Riot of 1967
|Dimension of DIsorder||Newark Riot of 1967|
|TRIGGER||An arrest of a cab driver and a passenger, who was then beaten by two police officers and then taken to jail|
|DURATION||5 days (July 12th-July 17th)|
|NUMBER AND IDENTITY OF THOSE KILLED AND INJURED||23 dead, 2 white men killed and assuming 21 black men; 750+ injured, identities unknown|
|NUMBER AND IDENTITY OF THOSE ARRESTED||Approximately 1500 people, identities unknown|
|LEVELS OF GOVERNMENT INVOLVED||Mostly state police, military forces, and national guard|
|AMOUNT AND KIND OF PROPERTY DAMAGE||Looting local businesses, shooting storefronts, painting windows, Fourth Precinct building vandalized. 250 fires reported|
|ASYMMETRY||Only 2 white men were killed, one was a police officer, and the other was a fire captain, exact number unknown of the 750+ injured; compared to 21 black men killed and an unknown number of the 750+ injured|
|GEOGRAPHICAL SPREAD||In front of the Fourth Precinct building and neighborhoods and local business surroundings the building area|
The dimensions I believe most define the events of this riot are the asymmetry and the number of people killed/injured and arrested. Although there is no exact number of people rioting, there was a large amount number of African Americans living in the city due to almost thirty years of migration from the south. With the number of people injured and arrested in the riot, it can be assumed that there were a least two thousand or more people part of the riot and the majority were African American. This number also includes civil rights leaders and groups. This riot can be labeled as a major disorder with how long it lasted, the reported number of fires, and the use of the National Guard.
The label that best describes this riot is an uprising. There was no riot between white and blacks, but rather between the police and blacks, which is why it cannot be labeled as a race riot. This was just a revolutionary act or a kind of revenge against the police for the arrest and beating of the cab driver and passenger. There were also other events leading up to the riot including Newark police being involved in incidents of killing African Americans during routine traffic stops and also raiding a house inhabited by Black Muslims for illegal weapons and then beating them with batons. The riot included violent expressions as protesters were throwing bricks and Molotov cocktails at the Fourth Precinct building and looting local stores. The riot ended with some political gain as the city later was able to elect its first black mayor, Ken Gibson.
I chose this image of a datacenter because I find it interesting how important they are for businesses to power their web applications and also their use for data storage.